الزراعة الكهروضوئية – Agrophotovoltaics

يحتاج النظام الشمسي الكهروضوئي إلى مساحة أرض واسعة تتناسب مع عدد الألواح ونوع النظام (On Grid/Off Grid) ولكن هذه المساحات قد تكون على حساب الأراضي الزراعية. وبالتالي كان لا بد من تطوير فكرة الزراعة الكهروضوئية Agrophotovoltaics للمحافظة على الأراضي الزراعية والاستفادة منها في الوقت نفسه في مجال الطاقة الشمسية.

الزراعة الكهروضوئية – Agrophotovoltaics

يقصد بالزراعة الكهروضوئية تنصيب نظام شمسي كهروضوئي فوق محاصيل زراعية مثمرة للاستفادة القصوى من المساحة المتوفرة.

أجرى الباحثون في معهد فراونهوفر الألماني لأنظمة الطاقة الشمسية – Fraunhofer ISE دراسة تجريبية مطولة استمرت لمدة عامين على أربع أنواع من المحاصيل، وهي: الحنطة الشتوية والبطاطا والكرافس والبرسيم وذلك في منطقة زراعية في ألمانيا حيث تم تنصيب ألواح شمسية كهروضوئية فوق مكان زراعة هذه المحاصيل على ارتفاع قدره 5 أمتار. و من ثم تمت عملية مراقبة هذه المحاصيل من حيث الإنتاج ومقارنته بأراض لم يتم تركيب ألواح كهروضوئية عليها، وكانت النتائج كالتالي:

نمت ثلاثة محاصيل من أصل الأربعة المزروعة تحت النظام الكهروضوئي بشكل أكبر بالمقارنة مع مثيلاتها من المحاصيل المزروعة بدون نظام كهروضوئي وكان العائد الأكبر من محصول الكرافس، حيث ازداد المحصول بنسبة 12% بالمقارنة مع المحصول المرجعي (بدون ألواح كهروضوئية).

وأيضاً ازداد العائد للأرض المزروعة بالحنطة الشتوية بنسبة 3% بالمقارنة مع المحصول المرجعي بينما انخفض العائد من البرسيم بنسبة 8%.

وبالتالي فإنه يمكننا الجمع ما بين التطبيقين الزراعي والكهربائي على نفس قطعة الأرض وتوفير 50% من الأراضي المستخدمة. إن هذا الدمج يحسن من إنتاج البطاطا مثلا بنسبة 3% ويقلل من إنتاج الكهرباء من النظام الشمسي بنسبة 17%. وبالنتيجة فإن كفاءة استخدام الأراضي قد ترتفع إلى 186% عند دمج التطبيقات كما في الصورة التالية.

الفرق بين استثمار الأرضي للزراعة وتركيب الألواح الكهروضوئية في وقت واحد وبشكل منفصل
المصدر: معهد فراونهوفر لأنظمة الطاقة الشمسية

تأثير الألواح الكهروضوئية على التربة

بالإضافة إلى مراقبة إنتاج المحاصيل، تمت مراقبة الظروف المناخية أسفل الألواح الشمسية الكهروضوئية وكانت النتائج فوق التوقعات. وجد الباحثون أن قيمة الإشعاع الشمسي تحت الألواح أقل بنسبة 30% عن قيمة الإشعاع الشمسي الساقط على الأراضي الخالية من الألواح الشمسية، كما يؤثر وجود الألواح على درجة حرارة التربة والندى.

كانت درجة حرارة التربة في الربيع والصيف في الأراضي الحاوية على الألواح الشمسية أقل من درجة الحرارة التربة في الأراضي الخالية من الألواح الشمسية بينما بقيت درجة حرارة الهواء متماثلة في الحالتين. كما لاحظ الباحثون ضمن فترات الصيف الحارة والجافة من عام 2018 ارتفاع رطوبة التربة في الأراضي الحاوية على الألواح الشمسية بالمقارنة مع الأراضي الأخرى، بينما كانت التربة أقل رطوبة في فترة الشتاء بالمقارنة مع باقي الأراضي.

خلص الباحثون إلى أن الظل الناتج عن الألواح الشمسية الكهروضوئية النصف شفافة يجعل من الأراضي الزراعية التي توجد تحتها تتمتع بقدرة أكبر على تحمل الظروف المناخية الحارة والجافة.

 فوائد مختلفة للنظام الكهروضوئي الزراعي

إن تكلفة إنتاج الطاقة من النظام الكهروضوئي الزراعي يمكن مقارنتها اليوم بنظام شمسي كهروضوئي صغير مركب على سطح بناء، ويتوقع الباحثون انخفاضا أكبر في هذه التكلفة نتيجة للوفرة في الحجم وتأثير التعلم. كما أن تخزين الطاقة الكهربائية المنتجة يمكن أن يقدم تطبيقات جديدة أيضا.

إليكم بعض التطبيقات العامة:

الري

يمكن استخدام الطاقة المنتجة من الألواح الكهروضوئية في تغذية مضخة لنقل الماء من مصدر مائي قريب وري المحاصيل أو لنقل الماء من خزان خاص.

كما يمكن استخدام الطاقة المنتجة في تغذية غاطس كهربائي يقوم بضخ المياه الجوفية إما لتخزن في خزان خارجي وتستخدم للري أو يتم تشغيل الغاطس للري بشكل مباشر عند الحاجة للمياه.

ضخ مياه الري باستخدام الألواح الشمسية الكهروضوئية في مصر
ضخ مياه الري باستخدام الألواح الشمسية الكهروضوئية في مصر

التدفئة

في حال وجود بيوت دفيئة في مكان قريب جداً من الأرض المزروعة والحاوية على الألواح الشمسية الكهروضوئية فيمكن استخدام الطاقة المنتجة من هذه الألواح في تأمين التدفئة والإنارة لهذه البيوت.

تغذية البيوت الدفئية باستخدام الألواح الكهروضوئية
تغذية البيوت الدفئية باستخدام الألواح الكهروضوئية
الزراعة الكهروضوئية في تايوان مع بيوت دفيئة

تشغيل أليات زراعية

يوجد الآن بعض الشركات المختصة بإنتاج الآلات الزراعية والتي تقوم بإنتاج جرارات كهربائية وآلات أخرى، بالتالي يمكن تأمين الطاقة التي تحتاجها هذه الآليات من الطاقة المنتجة من الألواح إما للعمل بها بشكل مباشر أو للشحن بعد الانتهاء من استخدام هذه الأليات.

الروبوتات ذات التطبيقات الخاصة

إنتشرت في السنوات الماضية عدة مشاريع حول العالم لتطوير روبوتات ذاتية القيادة و ذاتية التغذية بالكهرباء بواسطة أنظمة شمسية مدمجة أو مستقلة تعمل على شحن بطارية الروبوت. من هذه التطبيقات، حصلنا على الفيديو التالي لروبوت يقوم بإلتقاط الأعشاب الضارة و رش المبيدات الحشرية على المحاصيل. بالرغم من تميز هذه الأفكار و المشاريع، لم تنتشر هذه الروبوتات بشكل تجاري بعد لإرتفاع تكلفتها و صعوبة تخديمها.

مستقبل الزراعة الكهروضوئية

تظهر نتائج التجربة أن هنالك إمكانية كبيرة للاستفادة من هذه الأنظمة في المناطق ذات المناخ الجاف والقاحل حيث يمكن أن تستفيد المحاصيل من الظل الذي تقدمه الألواح الشمسية. كما أظهرت دراسة أولوية أجريت في معهد فرانهوفر الألماني Fraunhofer ISE من أجل منطقة ولاية ماهاراشترا Maharashtra الهندية أن تأثير الظل الناتج عن الألواح وانخفاض التبخر ينتج عنه زيادة في انتاج حقول الطماطم والقطن بنسبة 40%.

ويعمل العلماء في معهد Fraunhofer ISE على مشروع مشترك مع  برنامج الاتحاد الأوربي EU Program Horizon 2020 مع شركاء من الجزائر لاختبار تأثير النظام الكهروضوئي الزراعي على توازن الماء بالإضافة إلى إمكانية الاستفادة من مياه الأمطار الهاطلة إلى جانب انخفاض نسبة التبخير وانخفاض الحرارة.

خلاصة

إن نتائج هذه التجارب تفتح مجالاً واسعاً أمام الباحثين والشركات لتطوير تطبيقات جديدة للألواح الشمسية الكهروضوئية في القطاع الزراعي لمحاربة التصحر ولمساعدة الفلاحين على رفع العائد الإستثماري من أراضيهم.

نتمنى لكم يوماً مشمساً.

المراجع

  1. Fraunhofer ISE.
  2. OFFICE of ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY.

Image Credits: Fraunhofer ISE, pinterest, rimolgreenhouses, agriland, oemoffhighway

حنا ندروس

مهندس طاقة كهربائية محرر في القسم التعليمي وأخبار الطاقة المتجددة ومهتم بأبحاث الطاقة المتجددة بشكل عام والطاقة الشمسية بشكل خاص.

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