التقادم المُحَفَّز بالتوتر على الألواح الكهروضوئية «(PID) Potential-Induced Degradation»

الفهرس

مقدمة

لعل واحدة من أهم المشاكل في المنظومات الشمسية والتي تسبب التناقص المستمر لإنتاجيتها هي التقادم المُحَفّز بالتوتر، أو ما أسمته الشركة الألمانية TÜV Rheinland بالقاتل الأول للإنتاجية في المحطات الشمسية الكهروضوئية. فما هي ظاهرة التقادم المُحَفّز بالتوتر PID؟ وماهي أسباب حدوثه والعوامل المؤثرة وكيفية التقليل من آثاره؟

التقادم المحفز بالتوتر
القاتل الأول للإنتاجية

تعريف التقادم المُحَفّز بالتوتر «(PID) Potential-Induced Degradation»

لوحظ في العديد من المحطات الكهروضوئية حدوث تقادم للألواح الشمسية «Degradation» وانخفاض استطاعتها بنسبة كبيرة خلال السنوات الأولى من التشغيل مما أدى إلى فشل ذريع لهذه المنظومات وخسائر مالية ضخمة. تتحدث بعض التقارير عن ضياعات تصل إلى 30% لغالبية الأنظمة وحتى 70% في ظروف معينة. كما تتحدث هذه التقارير عن أن هذا النوع من التقادم يصيب تقريباً جميع المحطات الكهروضوئية.

انخفاض استطاعة الألواح بشكل كبير خلال السنوات الأولى من العمل

وبعد اجراء عدة دراسات لهذا الانخفاض في الأداء، وُجِدَ أن أحد الأسباب هو نشوء فرق توتر سالب بين الخلية الكهروضوئية من جهة والزجاج مع الهيكل المعدني من جهة أخرى. وقد يصل فرق التوتر هذا إلى مئات الفولتات مما يولد حقلاً كهربائياً يؤدي لمرور تيارات تسريبية.

مسار التيار التسريبي في التقادم المحفز بالتوتر
مسار التيار التسريبي

التيار التسريبي سيسمح لأيونات الصوديوم الموجبة الموجودة في الزجاج بالانجراف إلى الطبقة العليا من الخلية الشمسية بينما تتجه الالكترونات بعيداً عنها متخذةً عدة تجاهات .

اتجاه الشحنات الموجبة والشحنات السالبة

تتركز أيونات الصوديوم الموجبة على الطبقة n المشابة وتقوم بتعديل الشحنات السالبة مما يقلل من التأثير الكهروضوئي للخلية. كما تعمل الأيونات كشوائب في الخلية وبالتالي يقل التيار المولد من قبل الخلية وينخفض أداؤها.

وأطلق العلماء على الأثر المسبب لهذه التيارات اسم: التقادم المُحَفّز بالتوتر «Potential-Induced Degradation».

دارة القصر في وصلة P_N بعد تراكم أيونات الصوديوم على سطح الخلية
دارة القصر في وصلة P-N بعد تراكم أيونات الصوديوم على سطح الخلية

من الأسباب التي تجعل من ظاهرة (PID) أكثر خطورة هو قابليتها للعدوى. فلو أن مصفوفة ألواح تعاني من التقادم المُحَفّز بالتوتر (PID) يخفض من الأداء بنسبة 3% اليوم، فإن هذا الأداء لن يبقَ ثابتاً في حال اهماله بل سينقص بشكل متسارع بسبب انتقال الضرر إلى الخلايا المجاورة ومن ثم إلى الألواح المجاورة.

مسارات التيارات التسريبية

عندما يكون توتر الخلية منحازاً سلباً بالنسبة للأرض، فهذا يعني أن  الخلية تحتوي على عدد الكترونات كبير بالمقارنة مع الأرض، ويكون اتجاه التيار  من الهيكل إلى الخلية متخذاً عدة مسارات كالتالي:

  1. على طول السطح الخارجي للزجاج ومن ثم من خلال الزجاج ومادة غلاف الخلية (encapsulant) إلى الخلية.

  2. من خلال الزجاج ومادة غلاف الخلية ثم للخلية.

  3. على طول السطح الداخلي للزجاج ومن ثم مادة غلاف الخلية ثم للخلية.

  4. من خلال مادة غلاف الخلية ثم إلى الخلية.

  5. على طول الحد الفاصل بين الطبقة الخلفية ومادة غلاف الخلية ثم للخلية.

  6. على طول الطبقة الخلفية من ثم لمادة غلاف الخلية إلى الخلية
مسارات التيارات التسريبية

من بين كل المسارات السابقة يبقى المسار الأول هو الأكثر ضرراً في ظروف تشغيل الهواء الطلق، فعند هطول الأمطار وزيادة الرطوبة تقل المقاومة السطح الخارجي للزجاج وبالتالي تزداد قيمة التيار التسريبي.

العوامل المؤثرة على التقادم المُحَفّز بالتوتر (PID)

على مستوى تصميم المنظومة

  1. توتر المنظومة: يزيد فرق التوتر الناجم بين الهيكل والخلية كلما زاد توتر المنظومة وبالتالي يزيد التيار التسريبي.

  2. طرق تأريض المنظومة : هناك ثلاث طرق متبعة للتأريض من طرف الألواح:
    • التأريض السالب : يتم فيه ربط الطرف السالب للألواح مع الأرض ويكون فرق التوتر الناجم هناك موجباً.

    • التأريض الموجب: يتم فيه ربط الطرف الموجب للألواح مع الأرض ويكون فرق التوتر سالباً بين اللوح والأرض.

    • عدم تأريض أي طرف للألواح وهنا سيكون فرق التوتر سالباً بأعلى قيمة في الطرف الأول ليتناقص ويصل إلى الصفر في المنتصف ثم يزداد ايجاباً ليصل الى أعلى قيمة في الطرف الآخر.

على مستوى البيئة

1.    درجة الحرارة: زيادة درجة الحرارة تؤدي إلى زيادة هجرة شوارد الألمنيوم وبالتالي تزيد من موصلية الزجاج والمادة العازلة.

2.    الرطوبة: التيار التسريبي يتناسب طرداً مع الرطوبة.

على مستوى مواد تصنيع الخلية

  1.  الطلاء العاكس للخلايا.

  2.  نوع الزجاج ونسبة الصوديوم فيه.

  3. مواد تصنيع غلاف الخلية.

طرق تشخيص إصابة الألواح بأثر التقادم المُحَفّز بالتوتر (PID)

  1. ملاحظة التغيرات الحاصلة في منحني الجهد والتيار (I-V Curve):

    _ تغير توتر الدارة المفتوحة (Voc).

    _ تغير تيار القصر (Isc).

    _ تغير مقاومة اللوح الداخلية (Rsh).

    _ تغير التوتر الأعظمي (Vm).

    _ تغير التيار الاعظمي (Im).

  2. استخدام صور ملتقطة بالكاميرات الحرارية.

  3. استخدام صور مسجلة بتقنية (Electroluminescence).

بعض طرق التخفيف من أثر ظاهرة التقادم المُحَفّز بالتوتر (PID)

  1. تأريض القطب السالب للمنظومة، أي ربط طرف الألواح ذو الجهد السالب مع الأرض.

  2. استعمال زجاج ذو خصائص فيزيائية أفضل ولا يحوي على شوارد الصوديوم. وبما أن هذا الحل مكلف نسبياً، لذلك تم الاستعاضة عن ذلك بطلاء الزجاج بطبقة رقيقة من SiO2 تمنع هجرة الشوارد وتقلل من تيار التسريب.

  3. زيادة نسبة معامل الانكسار للطلاء العاكس للخلايا عن طريق زيادة نسبة Si / N.

  4. الاستغناء عن الإطار المعدني للألواح الشمسية (Frameless Modules).

الحلول التجارية لظاهرة التقادم المُحَفّز بالتوتر (PID)

يمكن أن تكون عملية التقادم هذه  عكوسة ونستطيع التقليل من آثارها. حيث طرحت بعض الشركات ما يسمى عادة بـ (Anti-PID box ) والذي يتم وضعه بين الألواح الشمسية و العاكس.

ففي فترة الليل وبمجرد انخفاض الجهد المولد إلى ما دون قيمة العتبة المحددة في المساء، عتبة إغلاق العواكس عادة، تعمل وحدة التحكم في الطفو على زيادة الحقل الكهروضوئي إلى جهد عالٍ وإيجابي وبالتالي عكس تأثير الاستقطاب الذي ينشأ أثناء التشغيل في النهار.

ومن جهة أخرى، تدعي بعض الشركات المصنعة للألواح الشمسية بأن ألواحها الجديدة تأتي بخاصية مضادة لأثر التقادم المُحَفّز بالتوتر (Anti-PID). لا يوجد تفسيرات مقنعة حتى الآن لهذه التقنيات وتقتصر الشروحات من المصنعين بأنه يتم حل المشكلة ببعض الخواص على مستوى الخلية الكهروضوئية والتي تمنع التسريب الكهربائي ابتداء من مستوى الخلية. لا توجد أي دلائل على مدى نجاعة هذه الحلول بعد ونرجح في سولارابيك بأن الهدف من إطلاق هذه الميزة على بعض الألواح هو إعلاني وتجاري بحت.

تابعونا على لينكيد إن Linked-in لمعرفة كل جديد في مجال الطاقة المتجددة…

نتمنى لكم يوماً مشمساً!

المصدر: GSES

          Energy &Environmental Science

هدلة زرزور

أكمل حالياَ ماجستير في الطاقات المتجددة الكهربائية جامعة دمشق. مهتمة بالطاقات المتجددة والتنمية المستدامة.

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