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خلايا بيروفسكيت الكهروضوئية – Perovskite Solar Cells

 خلايا بيروفسكيت الكهروضوئية – Perovskite Solar Cells

يزداد يوماً بعد يوم استخدام الألواح الشمسية الكهروضوئية لتوليد الكهرباء في مختلف القطاعات، مما يدفع بالعلماء والمطورين للبحث عن وسائل جديدة لرفع كفاءة الألواح الموجودة حالياً أو البحث عن تقنيات جديدة لتخفيض تكلفة الإنتاج و زيادة التنافسية للألواح الشمسية و الكهرباء المنتجة منها بشكل عام.

نتعرف اليوم على خلايا البيروفسكيت الكهروضوئية وكيفية تصنيعها وميزاتها.

البيروفسكيت – Perovskite

البيروفسكيت: هو أوكسيد الكالسيوم تيتانيوم أو كالسيوم تيتانيت وصيغته الكيميائية CaTiO3 ويطلق هذا الاسم أيضاً على جميع المعادن التي تتميز بنفس البنية الجزيئية البلورية مثل أوكسيد الكالسيوم تيتانيوم.

تم اكتشاف هذا المعدن لأول مرة في جبال الأورال الروسية وسميت باسم المنقب عن المعادن ليف بيروفسكيت ويتواجد هذا المعدن في طبقة الوشاح من الكرة الأرضية ولكن استخراجه صعب جداً لأن الوصول إليه يتطلب الوصول إلى أعماق كبيرة في باطن الأرض ولكن يمكن الحصول على البيروفسكيت مخبرياً حيث يمكن القول أن الصيغة العامة للبيروفسكيت ABX3.

حيث A و B هما أيونان موجبان ويكون A أكبر من B بينما X فهو أيون سالب يكون غالباً من الهاليدات أو الأكاسيد ويقوم بالربط بين المركبين السابقين.

تعرف الهاليدات على أنها المركبات الحاوية على أحد هذه العناصر (فلور F – بروم Br – كلور Cl – يود I – أساستين At).

يتميز البيروفسكيت بكفاءة عالية على امتصاص الإشعاع الشمسي، مدى الانتشار للشحنات كبير، وانخفاض طاقة السوية الالكترونية، وقيمة كبيرة لثابت العزل.

بينت هذه الخصائص وغيرها أهمية البيروفسكيت في تصنيع خلايا شمسية تحتوي على البيروفسكيت كطبقة ماصة للإشعاع الشمسي وبالتالي ظهرت خلايا بيروفسكيت الشمسية الكهروضوئية – Perovskite Solar Cells.

خلايا بيروفسكيت الشمسية الكهروضوئية – Perovskite Solar Cells

هي خلايا شمسية كهروضوئية تتألف من عدة طبقات. تكون الطبقة الماصة للضوء عبارة عن طبقة من البيروفسكيت وبالغالب تكون من النوع الهجين عضوي – غير عضوي من هاليد الرصاص أو القصدير.

كيفية يتم تصنيع خلايا بيروفسكيت

مقطع يوضح أقسام خلية بيروفسكيت
مقطع يوضح أقسام خلية بيروفسكيت

نبدأ بمادة موصلة شفافة توضع على طبقة من الزجاج وتصنع المادة الموصلة من fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)، ونضع فوقها طبقة من أكسيد التيتانيوم Titanium Dioxide TiO­2وهي طبقة نصف ناقلة نوع n تقوم بتحرير الالكترونات وتشكل هذه الطبقات مصعد الخلية الشمسية، ويوضع فوق هذه الطبقة طبقة من البيروفسكيت وهي الطبقة التي تقوم بامتصاص الإشعاع الشمسي وتحويله إلى طاقة كهربائية ومنها تتحرر الالكترونات والثقوب حيث تتنقل الالكترونات إلى طبقة المصعد بينما الثقوب إلى طبقة المهبط.

نضع فوق طبقة البيروفسكيت طبقة ذات جزيئات صغيرة Spiro-OmeTAD وهي طبقة نصف ناقلة نوع p تقوم بتحرير الثقوب.

في النهاية توضع طبقة من خطوط الذهب تعمل كموصلات للمهبط.

صورة توضح الأنواع الثلاثة لخلايا البيروفسكيت
صورة توضح بنية الأنواع الثلاثة لخلايا البيروفسكيت

بالنظر إلى الصورة نلاحظ أنه يوجد ثلاثة أنواع من خلايا بيروفسكيت وهي كالتالي:

الخلية التقليدية – Conventional Cell

تتألف هذه الخلية بشكل عام من الطبقات التالية:

طبقة موصلة شفافة – Transparent Conducting Oxide.

طبقة ناقلة للالكترونات – Electron Transport Layer.

طبقة من البيروفسكيت – Perovskite.

طبقة ناقلة للثقوب – Hole Transport Layer.

طبقة الخطوط الموصلة غالباً من الذهب – Electrode.

الخلية المعكوسة أو المقلوبة – Inverted Cell

تتألف هذه الخلية بشكل عام من الطبقات التالية:

طبقة موصلة شفافة – Transparent Conducting Oxide.

طبقة ناقلة للثقوب – Hole Transport Layer.

طبقة من البيروفسكيت – Perovskite.

طبقة ناقلة للالكترونات – Electron Transport Layer.

طبقة الخطوط الموصلة غالباً من الألمنيوم – Electrode.

الخلية المسامية – Mesoporous Cell

تتميز هذه الخلية عن الخلية التقليدية بوجود ركيزة من مادة مسامية – Mesoporous Scaffold تستند عليها مادة البيروفسكيت ومهمتها وصل الشحنة الكهربائية ومثال على هذه المواد المسامية أوكسيد التيتانيوم TiO.

يتعلق الاختلاف في الأنواع السابقة بطريقة تصنيع الخلية ومراحل وضع الطبقات فوق بعضها في الخلية وهذا الاختلاف يسبب اختلافا في عمل الخلية.

في الخلايا المعكوسة تكون كفاءة الإنتاج أكبر بالمقارنة مع الخلايا التقليدية، كما يمكن إضافة طبقة مسامية لها فتزداد كفاءتها.

إن طبقات البيروفسكيت المستخدمة في تصنيع الخلايا ذات عمر قصير حيث تتحلل مع الوقت بتأثير أشعة الشمس، ومن هنا ظهرت فكرة إضافة ركيزة مسامية على هذه الطبقة من الخلية مما يسبب في إطالة العمر التشغيلي وتخفيض نسبة التحلل وأيضاً يزيد من كفاءة الألواح.

ميزات خلايا بيروفسكيت

من أهم الميزات التي تتمتع بها هذه الخلايا هي كفاءتها العالية حيث تصل اليوم إلى 24% ويعمل الباحثون والعلماء على تطوير هذه الخلايا ورفع كفاءتها ومن المتوقع أن تتجاوز الخلايا الشمسية الكهروضوئية الأحادية والمتعددة السيليكونية (مونو وبولي).

ومن الميزات الهامة هي أنها تتألف بالكامل من مواد من صنع الإنسان أي يمكن تصنيعها بأقل تكلفة ممكنة وبالتالي تنخفض تكلفة الخلية بالمقارنة مع الخلايا الكهروضوئية العادية المصنوعة من بلورات السيليكون التي يتطلب الحصول عليها استخراجها من الأرض ومعالجتها قبل استخدامها في بناء الخلايا الكهروضوئية.

يتم تصنيع خلايا بيروفسكيت وفق عملية تسمى معالجة المحلول – solution Processing، وهي عملية مشابهة لعملية طباعة الجرائد.

إن طريقة التصنيع هذه تجعل من عملية تصنيع خلايا بيروفسكيت عملية قابلة للتطور بشكل كبير وبالإضافة إلى إمكانية تخفيض تكلفة الإنتاج بالمقارنة مع عمليات تصنيع الخلايا الكهروضوئية الأخرى، وإن انخفاض تكلفة التصنيع يعود على المستهلك بانخفاض أسعار الألواح وبالتالي تشجيع المستهلكين على استخدام الطاقة الشمسية كبديل عن الشبكة الكهربائية العامة.

تتميز أيضاً هذه الخلايا بمرونتها العالية مما يجعل من السهل تثبيتها في أماكن مختلفة من البناء وقد تكون مدمجة في بعض عناصر البناء كالنوافذ كونها أيضاً شبه شفافة، كما أن هذه الخلايا خفيفة الوزن بالتالي لا تقدم ضغط كبير على الأبنية.

صورة توضح مرونة خلايا بيروفسكيت
صورة توضح مرونة خلايا بيروفسكيت
خلية بيروفسكيت شبه شفافة
لاحظ كيف تبدو الخلايا شبه شفافة.

مستقبل خلايا بيروفسكيت

عمل العلماء في الفتر ة الأخيرة على تطوير خلايا بيروفسكيت لرفع كفاءتها وأخر ما توصل إليه العلماء هو خلايا بكفاءة قدرها 30.2%، ولكن كيف تحقق ذلك؟

تحقق ذلك بقيام العلماء بدمج تقنية خلايا بيروفسكيت  Perovskite مع خلايا ذات الوجهين bifacial crystalline silicon وذلك بوضع طبقة من مادة البيروفسكيت فوق خلايا ذات الوجهين وبهذه العملية نحصل على خليتين متراكبتين بكفاءة عالية في تحويل الطاقة حيث إحدى الخلايا تستجيب للفوتونات عالية الطاقة والخلية الثانية تستجيب للجزيئات ذات الطاقة المنخفضة.

خلية ذات وجهين مع طبقة بيروفسكيت
مقطع يوضح مكان تواجد طبقة البيروفسكيت على الخلية ذات الوجهين.

استخدم الباحثون مقاربة “الكفاءة المكافئة لخلايا ذات الوجهين” (Bifacial – equivalent efficiency) لحساب كفاءة هذه الخلايا وهذا يتضمن حساب كفاءة جهاز كهروضوئي بخلايا ذات وجه واحد الذي نحتاجه لإنتاج نفس الطاقة التي ينتجها جهاز كهروضوئي بخلايا ذات وجهين سنوياً في الشروط نفسها. باستخدام طريقة القياس هذه فقد تم قياس كفاءة الخلية الشمسية (خلية ذات وجهين مع طبقة البيروفسكيت) من الأمام بعد تعريضها لشروط الاختبار القياسي STC مع إضافة 20% من الإضاءة على الوجه الخلفي وبالتالي وصلت الخلية إلى كفاءة قدرها 30.2%.

يتوقع العلماء والباحثون أن تصل كفاءة هذه الخلايا إلى 35% خلال ثلاث إلى خمس سنوات.

خلاصة

هذه التقنية تعتبر جديدة في عمر الخلايا الشمسية لذلك يبدو أن لها مستقبلاً كبيراً نظراً الميزات التي تقدمها بالمقارنة مع باقي الخلايا لذلك نرى العلماء يعملون على هذه التقنية من الخلايا لرفع كفاءتها وتطوير خصائصها ومن المتوقع أن تتطور بشكل أكبر في السنوات القليلة القادمة وأن تشكل جزءاً كبيراً من سوق الألواح الشمسية.

تابعونا لمواكبة تطور هذه الخلايا وغيرها من تقنيات الطاقة الشمسية.

نتمنى لكم يوماً مشمساً.

فيديو من جامعة واشنطن لعملية تصنيع خلية شمسية كهروضوئية من نوع بيروفسكيت

حنا ندروس

https://solarabic.com

مهندس طاقة كهربائية محرر في القسم التعليمي وأخبار الطاقة المتجددة ومهتم بأبحاث الطاقة المتجددة بشكل عام والطاقة الشمسية بشكل خاص.

140 تعليقات

  • نشكركم… ونرجو مداومة التواصل ونشر علوم الطاقة الشمسية

  • السلام عليكم
    انا من الجزائر تخصص طاقاتا متجددة هل يمكنني التقدم للوظائف التي يتم الاعلان عنها بقسم الوظائف
    وشكرااا

    • وعليك السلام صديقي.
      اتبع الرابط الملحق بالوظيفة.

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اترك تعليقاً

لن يتم نشر عنوان بريدك الإلكتروني.

error: جميع الحقوق محفوظة لسولارابيك

هل تود أن تبقى متطلعاً على أحدث أخبار ونشاطات الطاقة المتجددة في المنطقة العربية؟